Programming Blocks on the Common Palette
This is the move block. It makes the robot move forward. You can adjust the settings. You can change the distance measure to Unlimited, Degrees, Rotations, or Seconds. You can also change which motors move. If you want more then one motor to move in the same action, you should use the motor block.
The Record/Play block lets you record your motor actions such as if you turn it, The NXT knows how much and what speed I wouldn't sweet learning about this block because I have made thousands of programs and have never used this block. It is really simple just name the action and do it then adjust the action to play and it will play the action.
The sound block lets your robot communicate through sound. It has two options; to play notes or to play recoded sound already downloaded in the software. You can also make your own sound by downloading it find it such in the case in my dog Jack. There is also a key board so you can play a range of notes from very high B to some low C so you can play most songs fine. There are ways tho make your robot play a song like adding lots of sound blocks together.
The Display Block
The display block displays an image on the NXT's screen. You can make your own image, Type, Draw and there is Reset, that makes the screen go blank and clear the previous image. There is a list of images and you can make your own in the Image editor. You can make a basic image on the block as well.
The Wait block
The Wait Block makes the robot wait, hence the name WAIT Block. The Wait Block can wait for sensors, such as the Touch Sensor ( see "What is MINDSTORMS?": Retail Sensors) and wait for the touch sensor be pushed, released, or bumped. The Wait Block can also wait 2 seconds, 3 seconds and so on.
The Loop Block
The Loop Block Repeats a sequence of blocks, so you don't have to put them on over and over again. It keeps going no matter what on ALL programs you need the loop block I have not needed it twice. There are ways to get out of a Loop Block there is true false and other stuff so it can loop till the reading plugging in the loop is true or false depending on what you put in.
The Switch Block
The Switch block is for me the most important block in a way it lets your robot make choices based on its surroundings. It can be used in many ways true or false on a sensor value that is in the block. You can also chose flat view and change it to number and have unlimited choices to what path to take according to the number.
The Switch Block Flat View
This is the Switch Block in Flat View. To get to Flat View, just uncheck the box on the lower-left corner
THE COMPLETE PALETTE
The Complete Palette has every kind of programming block you'll ever need.( maybe)
The motor block makes a specific motor move it can be used on only one motor. It is a better idea to use then the move block because this is more advanced with more options and the biggest thing that is in your benefit is the motor power. The motor power is GREAT so lets say you want you robot to go at 10 speed (no motor power) then because of friction it will go much slower if not go at all. The motor power however makes it so it will move 10 speed by adding (dd not ss) more power to the motor so it can have more torque. In all this is great for one motor and a combination of them is better then one move block.
Send Message Block
I don't know a lot about this block, but I think that it is a block which enables you to send text, number, or logic.
Color Lamp Block
This is the Color Lamp Block. It lights up the Color Lamp and can show the colors, blue, green, and red. I used it in my Robotic Traffic Light project.
The Touch Sensor Block
the touch sensor block lets you tell if it has been presses and it can react to that action